1882 - 1935 (Germany, U.S.A.)
Emmy was born to a Jewish family in Germany, and was the daughter of noted mathematician and algebraic scholar Max Noether. In her early years, she did not stand out academically, and was certified to teach English and French.
As one of two women students in a university of almost a thousand students, Emmy excelled at mathematics, and upon graduation taught at the same university as her father for seven years without pay, as women were largely excluded from academic positions. She also delivered her father’s lectures when he was too ill to teach. When invited to join the mathematics department at another University, faculty objections forced her to lecture under a male colleague’s name.
When the Nazis dismissed Jews from University positions in 1933, Noether moved to the US to teach and write. She died following complications after surgery for an ovarian cyst at age 53.
Noether’s Theorem is considered as important as the Theory of Relativity and the Pythagorean Theorem, and is the backbone on which all of modern physics is built.